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Hand Creams and Hand & Body Creams
The hands are the main unprotected area of the body other than the face. It is important that the skin which covers them should remain soft and smooth. The main features of good hand creams or lotions are therefore that they should be easy and quick to apply without leaving a tacky film. They should also soften the hands and perhaps help them to heal without interfering with normal hand perspiration. They are usually colored and lightly perfumed to make their use pleasant.
One of the most popular healing agents is allantion. Additionally, some of the newer, skin substantive quaternary salts have also been shown to have healing and soothing effects for example quaternium, a hydroxyethyl cellulose derivatives.
All-purpose creams should comply with the following requirements:
1. It should be oily in nature, liquefy readily and not readily absorbed by skin as a cleansing cream.
2. It should be emollient yet not leave a greasy or sticky film on the skin as a hand cream.
3. It should leave the continuous but not occlusive oil film on the skin as a protective and emollient cream.
Protective creams and hand cleansers.
The chemicals that are in everyday use and the capable of inflicting damage on unprotected skin. The list includes domestic cleaners such as detergents, floor and metal polishes, bleaches, oven cleaners, paints and varnishes. Industrial hazards include acids, alkalies, organic solvents, resins, dyestuffs, weed killers, insecticides, lubricants and many more.
The types of hazard from which the skin is to be protected are:
1. Dry solids, dust and dirt.
2. Aqueous solutions or suspensions.
3. Non-aqueous materials, including oils, fats and solvents.
5. Physical hazards, such as heat, cold, UV radiation and abrasion.
Barrier materials – Protective creams and gels
The use of barrier materials in protective creams and gels provides protection from waterborne hazards. There are many hydrophobic substances that can be spread upon the skin in a continuous field to form a water-repellent occlusive film. These include petrolatum, paraffin waxes, vegetable oils, lanolin, silicons and occlusive esters. The water-repellent materials added are capable of modifying the film-forming agent to improve its aesthetic or functional qualities. These include alumina, zinc oxide, zinc stearate, talc, titanium dioxide, kaolin and stearic acid. Oil repellent films can be formed from water-swellable polymers such as alginates, cellulose derivatives, bentonites and natural clays. The combination of water-repellent and oil- repellent can form the basis of a general-purpose barrier cream.
Non-aqueous barrier products
The protection against water soluble irritants can be given by film-forming materials applied from a non-aqueous medium. The non-aqueous protective product of the past is the zinc and castor oil ointment which has been smeared onto the more vulnerable skin surface of countless babies and young children. Today there are much more pleasant and sophisticated products on the market.
Skin cleaners of various types and now considered to be a valuable part of the skin care regime along with toners and moisturizers stop. Such cleansers are formulated to remove every day grime, secretions and makeup. They may not be equally effective against the heavy stains, greases, resins, adhesives, oils, paint, tar, and dyestuffs with which the skin (particularly the hands) may be covered in the modern home, garden or workplace. Heavy duty cleansers of the possibility of removing many of these contaminants with little risk of permanent damage to the skin.
The first heavy-duty skin cleaners other than soap and water are sulfonated oils. These are particularly valuable in the removal of oils and solvents where the habitual and frequent use of soap had caused skin irritation. Sulfonated oils have now been largely superseded by the so-called waterless hand cleansers. The term “waterless” is somewhat misleading because many of them contain water in the formulation, and waterless refers to the fact that they can be used without the use of additional water, although a final rinse off in water is often recommended by the manufacturer. Waterless hand cleansers can be formulated as pastes, creams, gels, lotions or clear liquid and consist of a cleansing agent, a thickener, an emulsifier and (usually) water.
The heavy-duty cleansers are not water soluble. Aliphatic solvents are used as cleansing agents. These solvents are effective, inexpensive, innocuous and readily available. Does the majority of formulations contain odorless kerosene, mineral spirits or mineral oils.
Any agent which will thicken either the water phase or oil phase of the product may be used as a thickener. The soaps used as emulsifiers to produce gels may be the sodium, triethanolamide or monoethanolamide salts of stearic or oleic acids or a mixture of both.
Emollients are added to improve the application properties and to prevent the defatting of the skin. Emollients include lanolin, ethoxylated lanolin, myristyl myristate and properly glycol.
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